Neurofeedback, also known as EEG biofeedback, is an effective therapeutic technique that aims to regulate and optimize brain function. It involves real-time monitoring of the brain’s electrical activity using an electroencephalogram (EEG), with the information presented to the individual through visual or auditory feedback. This feedback allows the person to learn to self-regulate their brain activity patterns. As a result, it will promote positive changes in cognition, emotions, and behavior.

Risks Associated with Neurofeedback

Here are some potential risks and side effects associated with neurofeedback:


During a neurofeedback session, individuals may experience temporary discomforts, such as frustration, anxiety, or restlessness. It can occur due to the concentration and mental effort required to engage in the training process.

Headache and Fatigue

Some individuals may experience headaches or fatigue after a neurofeedback session. These effects are typically mild and transient. But they can occur due to the intense mental focus and brain activity involved in the training.

Dizziness and Nausea

In some cases, people may experience dizziness or nausea during or after a neurofeedback session. These symptoms are usually temporary and subside quickly, but it’s essential to inform the practitioner if they occur.

Emotional Reactivity

Neurofeedback training can sometimes result in temporary emotional changes. Some individuals may experience heightened emotional sensitivity, increased irritability, or emotional lability during or after sessions. 

Unwanted Memories or Emotions 

In some cases, neurofeedback training may lead to the reemergence of past memories or unresolved emotional experiences. This can be challenging for some individuals, particularly if unprepared for it.

Importance of Considering Safety Measures of Neurofeedback 

When exploring the field of neurofeedback, it is essential to address the safety considerations associated with this approach. As with any intervention directly interacting with the brain, concerns may arise regarding potential risks or adverse effects. Understanding the safety aspects of neurofeedback is also crucial for both individuals as well as healthcare professionals. 

Common Potential Misconceptions and Fears About Neurofeedback

Neurofeedback has many associated misconceptions and fears regarding its safety. Hence, addressing these concerns and providing accurate information is essential. One common misconception is the belief that neurofeedback involves the transmission of external electrical currents directly into the brain.

In reality, neurofeedback utilizes sensors placed on the scalp to measure brainwave activity, providing feedback to the individual in real time. This process is entirely safe and does not involve any direct manipulation or electrical stimulation of the brain.

Research Studies and Evidence on the Safety of Neurofeedback

Multiple research studies have indicated that this therapy is safe and has a low risk of adverse effects. In a systematic review conducted by Thibault et al. (2018), which analyzed data from 94 studies, no severe adverse events related to neurofeedback were reported. The most common side effects reported were temporary fatigue or mild headaches, occurring in less than 10% of participants.

Moreover, the review concluded that neurofeedback is a safe treatment. Also, this study states that this therapy can effectively treat various conditions. These conditions include attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety, and depression.

Furthermore, the American Psychological Association’s Division 30 (Society of Psychological Hypnosis) published guidelines for the safe practice of clinical hypnosis, which includes neurofeedback. These guidelines emphasize the importance of adequately trained professionals and ongoing monitoring and evaluation to ensure safety during neurofeedback.

Ensuring Safe Neurofeedback Practice

One crucial aspect of ensuring safe neurofeedback practice is the qualifications and credentials of the practitioners. Certified neurofeedback clinicians, often licensed healthcare professionals such as psychologists or counselors, possess the necessary knowledge and training to administer neurofeedback sessions safely.

They have received specialized education and have experience in interpreting brainwave patterns. Additionally, individualized treatment plans are of paramount importance. Healthcare professionals should make clients’ neurofeedback programs tailored to their unique needs.

They must consider their specific condition, medical history, and brainwave patterns. This personalized approach ensures that the neurofeedback training is targeted and maximally beneficial while minimizing any potential risks.

Furthermore, ethical considerations and guidelines play a significant role in maintaining the safety of neurofeedback practice. Practitioners adhere to strict ethical standards established by professional organizations, such as the Biofeedback Certification International Alliance (BCIA), which provide guidelines for client confidentiality, informed consent, and professional conduct.

These ethical considerations help protect the well-being and privacy of clients throughout the neurofeedback process. By following these principles, practitioners can create a safe environment for individuals seeking neurofeedback as a therapeutic intervention.


In conclusion, when considering the safety of neurofeedback, individuals must consult with experts and make informed decisions. Seeking advice from experienced practitioners who can assess an individual’s specific needs and provide personalized guidance is crucial. Ultimately, informed decision-making and expert consultation empower individuals to make choices that prioritize their well-being and maximize the potential benefits of this innovative therapy.

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